Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011-2012
The third Tanzania HIV and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011 – 2012 (THMIS III) HIV prevalence data were obtained from blood samples voluntarily provided by a total of 20,811 women and men interviewed. Of the eligible women and men age 15-49, 90% of women and 79% of men provided specimens for HIV testing.
Overall, 5.1% of Tanzanians age 15-49 are HIV-positive. HIV prevalence is higher among women (6.2%) than among men (3.8%). HIV prevalence is higher in urban areas for both women and men than in rural areas.
A comparison of the 2007-08 THMIS and 2011-12 THMIS HIV prevalence estimates indicate that HIV prevalence has declined slightly from 5.7% to 5.1% among adults age 15-49. Similarly, HIV prevalence has declined among women, from 6.6% to 6.2%, and among men, from 4.6% to 3.8%.
In Mainland Tanzania, HIV prevalence among women and men age 15-49 has decreased from 7.0% in the 2003-04 THIS to 5.3% in the 2011-12 THMIS. The decline in total HIV prevalence between 2003-04 and 2011-12 is statistically significant. Additionally, the decline is significant among men (6.3% versus 3.9%).
Drivers of the epidemic
- Promiscuous sexual behaviour
- Intergerational sex
- Concurrent sexual partners
- Presence of other sexually transmitted infections such as herpes simplex x 2 virus.
- Inadequate comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission
Contextual factors shaping the epidemic in the country
- Poverty and transactional sex with increasing numbers of commercial sex workers
- Men's irresponsible sexual behaviour due to cultural patterns of virility
- Social, economic and political gender inequalities including violence against women
- Substance abuse such as alcohol consumption
- Local cultural practices e.g. widow cleansing
- Mobility in all its forms which leads to separation of spouses and increased establishment of temporary sexual relationships